The short answer is – A lot.
If you are performing calculations of CO2 impacts, you look at how much CO2 there is in any one bit of air (concentration) and how far it is from heat source to cool thing (distance). The product of these two things determines how much radiant energy is absorbed by the CO2.
We will use ‘bar’ for pressure (1 bar = 100 kPa) and meters for length, though we will use bar cm for the product (for reasons that will become apparent).
We will start with normal air, 80% N2, 20% O2.
First, displace air with CO2 until the mixture becomes 50% CO2, 40% N2, 10% O2. Let’s all agree that a 50% atmosphere of CO2 is a lot of CO2.
4 meters of this mixture will have a “Path Length” of 200 bar cm.
Now only displace 10% of the air, so 10% CO2, 72% N2, 18% O2
20 meters of this mixture will have a “Path Length” of 200 bar cm and absorb as much radiation as 4 meters of the 50% concentration.
Now only displace 0.039% of the air. Thus about 80% N2, 20% O2, 390 ppm CO2.
5,128 meters of this mixture (at the surface of the earth) will have a “Path Length” of 200 bar cm and absorb as much radiation as 4 meters of the original mixture that was 50% CO2. So over a very long length, 390 ppm is a LOT of CO2.
The atmospheric pressure drops as elevation increases. For the total atmosphere (40 kilometers for calculation purposes), at 100 ppm CO2 throughout, the path length will be somewhere around 67 bar cm (using the ‘standard atmosphere’ equation for change in pressure with elevation). At 390 ppm, the path length is somewhere around 261 bar cm, or more than a 50% CO2 atmosphere over 4 meters. At one time, one could review Leckner’s curves for CO2 absorbance on google books. The page with the curves has been removed from the review of the reference (Bejan, Adrian; Kraus, Allan D. Heat Transfer Handbook. John Wiley &Sons., 2003 Page 618 ). If you go to that book in a library, you will see that at 200 bar cm, the emissivity is nearly identical to that at 100 bar cm and the increase to 500 bar cm is less than that from 100 to 200, over a temperature range from 0 celsius to 2,000 celsius. Beyond 500 bar cm, there is no further impact from increasing CO2. It is at about 100 bar cm that the growth begins to flatten out from the logarithmic that is used in climate models. I will be happy to provide a photocopy of the individual page to anyone who asks, as that is ‘fair use’, but will not post such a photocopy here as that might be construed as copyright violation.